Pavlos Santorinis

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Physicist, Engineer, Inventor (1893 – 1986)

Pavlos Santorinis was a physicist, civil engineer and professor of experimental physics in the National Polytechnic School of Athens. He was one of the most important researchers and inventors of the 20th century, with expertise in numerous fields such as statistics, electromagnetic waves, hydraulics and energy from natural resources. He is most widely known today as the inventor of the radar.

Santorinis published over 100 original scientific research papers in the most presitgious French and German science journals. Among his most notable contributions were the discovery of the discontinuous internal deformation of concrete and its experimental proof, the measurement of elastic oscillations of metallic bridge using electronic layouts which he himself invented, the discovery of new phenomena of electrons and electromagnetic waves and the invention of a device that measured the wavelength of very low frequency electromagnetic waves. In 1936 he formulated the principle of bomb explosion above the ground’s surface in a given height, which was applied by the Americans during the bombing of Hiroshima. The same year, Santorinis invented the fuze, upon which was based the Proximity Fuze used by the Allied Forces in 1944, termed “the 2nd most dangerous weapon in America”.

From 1936 to 1940, Pavlos Santorinis developed one of the most groundbreaking inventions known to man, the radar. Developed only a few years earlier than Robert Watson Watt’s radar, the Hellenic Radar, as it came to be known, was an ecatostometric radar, meaning it had the ability to detect electromagnetic waves with wavelength ranging from 5 cm to 200 km. In 1940 the radar successfully detected the first aircraft, which was a British airplane travelling over Melos, 160 km away. Santorinis’ invention revolutionized the airforce. Prior to the radar, the airforce relied on watchers with binoculars and rudimentary acoustic instruments for the detection of enemy aircrafts. Santorinis’ radar enabled the army to detect enemy aircrafts from very long distances and track the enemy’s movements safely and in secrecy. Upon its first successful operation, Ioannis Metaxas passed the blueprints to the British government, resulting in the radar’s debut in the Second World War in 1942.

Following his success with the radar, Santorinis accomplished the production of electromagnetic waves beyond the visible specturm while in 1942 he invented the “Electronic Brain H” (Ἠλεκτρονικὸς Ἐγκέφαλος Η), a complex system that enabled the automatic piloting of missiles against a moving object. The device’s full potential was only realized in 1953, when it was utilized by the US and was named “Nike” meaning Victory. He had numerous other scientific achievements, namely improving the usage methods of solar energy and wind energy for various applications.

Pavlos Santorinis was also cocnerned with theoretical and sometimes philosophical aspects of physics. In 1968 he formulated the theory of multiple successive micro-explosions of the universe, which came to overthrow the Big Bang theory while in 1974 he hypothesized a new principle, that of “The Declining Entropy of the Universe”. Santorinis was also a personal friend of Albert Einstein; he would solve him various mathematical and physics problems that Einstein couldn’t. He spoke 6 languages and taught in multiple universities both inside and outside of Greece.

Even though today Pavlos Santorinis’ name is not as well-known as would be expected, he received widespread recognition worldwide and was celebrated internationally. He was the recipient of the Fermat Prize by the Academy of Sciences of Toulouse in 1961, the Vermeil Prize by the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1968 and 1969, and the French Society of Progress prize in 1969. The same year, the British awarded Santorinis for his invention of the radar, acknowledging that he invented it 4 years before them. Finally, Santorinis was awarded the Order of the Phoenix by the royal family of Greece. He died in 1986 at the age of 93.

Bibliography:

  1. Ἀϋφαντῆς, Γεώργιος. Ἄνθρωπος καὶ Ἐπιστήμη Τόμος Α’: Ἐνημέρωσις. Ἐκδόσεις Ἑλληνικὸν Σέλας. Ἀθῆναι: 2009. Print.
  2. Παύλος Σαντορίνης, ο Ἕλληνας που ανακάλυψε το ραντάρ. Δίοδος, Η Πύλη της Γνώσης. Diodos.gr. May 15, 2019. Web.
  3. Σαντορίνης Παῦλος. Μεγάλη Στοὰ τῆς Ἑλλάδος. Grandlodge.gr. May 15, 2019. Web.
  4. Spanopoulos. B.A. “Pavlos Santorinis”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Passas, I. Athens: 1946. Print.
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Pavlos Santorinis

Sophocles

sophocles

Tragic Poet (495 BC – 406 BC)

One of the greatest tragic poets to have ever lived, Sophocles, together with Aeschylus and Euripides form the holy triad of tragic poetry and theater arts. The writer of world-renowned plays such as Oedepus, Antigone and Philoctetes, Sophocles exerted enormous influence in the world of theater in the distant past when the aim of theater was not for entertainment as is today’s but for education and spiritual cleansing.

Sophocles was born in Athens to a wealthy, aristocratic family. He received an excellent education for his times, learning music from acclaimed teachers and tragic poetry from Aeschylus’ plays. As a playwright, Sophocles made his debut in front of the Greek audience in 468 BC at the age of 28 with his first play Triptolemos. His play won him his first prize, winning over Aeschylus, who had dominated the hearts of Athenian men as the greatest of all tragic poets. This signaled the rise of a new genius in tragic poetry and marked the start of Sophocles’ long and successful career.

Sophocles was an emblematic figure in the Athenian society and an exemplary citizen. In 443 – 442, following the massive acclaim of his play Antigone, Sophocles was made an honorary general and together with Pericles took part in the battle against the Samiotes. The same year he served as president of the Greek treasury. Widely popular throughout the whole Greece, he was a close friend of both of his rivals Aechylus, whom he considered his mentor and Euripides, whom he admired. Additionally, Sophocles was a good friend of Herodotus whom he also admired greatly, a feeling that was mutual between the two.

There is a general disagreement among historians concerning the total number of Sophocles’ works. It is generally accepted, however, the total number to be around 123. Sophocles won 1st place a total of 20 times and never ranked lower than second place in any competition that he participated in. His plays, which still luster with the same greatness as they did thousands of years ago, draw inspiration from the rich stories of the ancient Greek tradition, the world of the ancient Greek mythology, which relfects the states of man’s soul. It was this soul that Sophocles’ tragedies aimed to provoke and disturb and ultimately cleanse during the climax of the play, leading to its catharsis.

Not only is Sophocles a tragic poet. He is a philosopher, a hierophant, an initiate of the Mystery Schools, as was Aeschylus before him, a profound connoisseur of the Dionysean and Apollonian Mysteries, an anatomist of the human soul. The center of Sophocles’ plays is Man. In contrast, however to his predecessor, Sophocles’ characters act within the natural world and within the normal human boundaries. They are, nevertheless, braver than the average man, engulfed by the sense of justice and ethical duty, possessing ideals and principles for which they are willing at any given moment to sacrifice themselves to defend them, an iron will to overcome situations that exceed the human dimensions. In Sophocles’ plays, the characters’ actions are born from within themselves and are not a cause of an external or divine force. Hence, Sophocles’ tragedies are born from the struggle of man to overcome their nature and their fate. Through the drama, Sophocles’ ultimate goal is the apotheosis of man, which he considers the most amazing being of the universe (πολλὰ τὰ δεινά, κοὐδὲν ἀνθρώπου δεινότερον πέλει).

The innovations which Sophocles introduced in theater were numerous. He increased the total number of actors on the stage from 2 to 3, and the dancers of the chorus from 12 to 15. The chorus thus served as a protagonist and as a commentator. He furthermore introduced the Phyrgic melody in his plays. Even though an actor himself, Sophocles did not act in his own plays, as did his predecessors. He is the first to introduce the psychological aspect in the drama, with his characters seeking to shed light to their innermost, darkest places of their soul. The characters gain for the first time in theater a three-dimensional and psychological aspect and their actions imbue admiration to the spectator. It was Sophocles’ breakthrough to portray characters not as they normally are, but how they should be. That is, the idealization of the human soul.

In general, Sophocles’ works befall in the following categories: Theogony and the birth of the Gods, on the geneology of Deucalion, on the Argonauts’ expedition, on the geneology of Heracles, Inachus, Cadmus and Europe, on the geneology of the Pelasgians, Cecrops, the children of Tandalos and lastly on the Iliad and the Odyssey. Of the 123 plays, all but 7 survive only in fragments. These 7 plays are the following:

  • Antigone – About a young woman who disobeys the law to perform a righteous act.
  • Ajax – A play centered on the Trojan hero Ajax, with the themes revolving around polemic virtue and dignity.
  • Oedipus Tyrranus – A timeless classic on the tragic life of King Oedipus and his fate.
  • Trachiniae – About Deianira and the accidental murder of her husband Hercules.
  • Electra – A story of two siblings taking revenge on their father’s death.
  • Philoctetes – On the persuation of Trojan hero Philoctetes by Odysseus to join the Trojan War and fulfill the prophecy of the fall of Troy.
  • Oedipus at Colonus – The final part of the Oedipus trilogy masterpiece.

The main theme that is projected from Sophocles’ work is the highest ethical ideal of Hellenism: the harmony between the duty and freedom.

Sophocles is the primary representative of atticism, with his plays being the embodiment of everything the Athenian classicism of the 5th century BC epitomized, namely the philosophy, the religion, the ethics, the education, the Athenian land and nature and above all, all the high virtues of mankind, which Greece raised and placed in the center of man’s soul. Sophocles continued from where Aeschylus left the development of tragic poetry and brought it to the limits of perfection. He was called by many as the Homer of tragic poetry. With his works, tragic poetry and theatre arts as a whole reach their apogee. As Friedrich Nietzsche writes in his book The Birth of TragedyThe art of Aeschylus and Sophocles originate from the artistic ideal of the perfect harmony of the Dionysean and Apollonian spirits”.

With Sophocles, tragic poetry transcends the boundaries of art, becoming a means of spiritual exaltation and Greek Meditation. His immortal masterpieces are children of the Greek spirit, the Greek Miracle, which, as N.D. Korkofinis puts beautifully in the Encyclopaedia of the Sun “[The Greek art, the Greek philosophy, the immortal ancient Greek spirit] gift the entire human race its freedom from the horrors and agony of its earthly life. And this service is the highest service of the Greek world to all Humanity”.

Bibliography:

  1. “Sophocles”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. N.D. Korkofinis, Passas, I. Athens: 1946. Print.
  2. Cartwright, Mark. Sophocles. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Sep 2013. Web. 09 May 2019.
  3. Δρακόπουλος, Ναστούλης, Ρώμας. Σοφοκλέους Τραγωδίαι – Ἀντιγόνη Φιλοκτήτης. Οργανισμός Εκδόσεως Διδακτικών Βιβλίων – Αθήνα. Υπουργείο Εθνικής Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων. Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο.
Sophocles

Neophytos Metaxas

neophyte

Archbishop, Writer, Hero of the Greek War of Independence (1762 – 1861)

Neophytos Metaxas (real name Nikolaos), is one of the national heroes of the Greek War of Independence, serving as the first Archbishop of Athens during Greece’s inception as a free nation. Together with Athanasios Diakos and Isaiah of Salona, Neophytos was the main protagonist of the Greek War of Independence in Sterea Hellada (Central Greece) and responsible for its outbreak there.

He descended from the noble Metaxas family, the same from which another great leader of the Greek nation, Ioannis Metaxas descended. He studied in Athens and became a teacher before moving to Constantinople. In 1803 he returned to Athens and was appointed Bishop of Talantion.

On March 27, 1821, 2 days after the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, Neophtos Metaxas together with Athanasios Diakos and Isaiah of Salona declared the outbreak of the war in Central Greece and blessed the weapons of the Greeks. In spite of his old age, Neophytos was a heroic figure in the Greek War of Independence, partaking actively in multiple battles and offering great material and spiritual support. Together with Athanasios Diakos they mobilized the Greek forces, liberating Locris and Atalante. He inspired, wrote letters to and recruited numerous Greeks to the war, most notably the heroine Manto Mavrogenous. In addition, Neophytos served as president of the judicial department of Areios Pagos, the Supreme Court of Greece, took part in the Assembly of Salona, the first National Assembly of Epidaurus and the Assembly of Astros. He was a member of the Philomousos Society and the Philekpedeutic Society, concerned with the financial support of the war and education respectively.

Following the independence of Greece as a nation, Neophytos was appointed member of the educational committee for supervising the general function of the Church. A close friend of John Kapodistrias, the first governor of Greece, he occupied several positions as Bishop and place-warden, namely Bishop of Attica, Metropolitan of Athens and eventually President of the Holy Synod and Archbishop of Athens.

As Archbishop for 28 years, Neophytos became the longest-serving Archbishop in Greek history. He is recognized as one of the most important and influential figures in the ecclesiastical history of Greece, having worked tirelessly and with the utmost dedication for the development of the Church, its proper function, its laws and its service to society. During Otto’s reign and the Bavarians’ involvement in the administration of the state, Neophytos was the one who defended the Church and its rights. He wrote numerous books and articles on theology and was honoured with the silver medal for his contributions to the Greek nation. He died in 1861 almost at the age of 100.

Bibliography:

    1. Αρχιεπίσκοπος Νεόφυτος. Metapedia. El.metapedia.org. Web.
    2. Η αντίσταση του ηρωικού Επισκόπου Ταλαντίου Νεόφυτου Μεταξά, στις αντιεκκλησιαστικές αξιώσεις της Τρόϊκας του Όθωνα. Η Θεοσκέπαστη Γή των Μετεώρων. Agiameteora.net. April 29, 2019. Web.

 

 

Neophytos Metaxas

Hippasus

ipasos

Philosopher, Mathematician (c.500 BC)

Hippasus of Mentapontus was a Pythagorean philosopher, one of Pythagoras’ first students initiated into Pythagoreanism and founder of the Mathematical Department of Pythagoras’ School.

He was active during the first 30 years of the 6th century BC and is considered as one of the oldest Pythagorean philosophers, as well as Pythagoras’ first assistant. While himself Pythagorean, Hippasus’ teachings differed slightly from those of Pythagoreans. For instance, he believed that the beginning of the world is matter (fire) rather than immaterial (numbers). He wrote a book Secret Logos, which he published under the name of Pythagoras, containing his philosophy. Only fragments of his book survive today.

As a mathematician, Hippasus is the discoverer of irrational numbers, infinite decimals with no indefinitely repeating digits. Furthermore, he discovered that the ratio of a side of a pentagon to the diagonal of a pentagon is equal to an irrational number and that the length of an isosceles’ triangle shorter side is an irrational number if the length of the two equal sides is a whole one.

Not surprisingly, Hippasus was also an inventor. He is credited as having constructed containers with varying amounts of water each, including metal plates of varying thickness with which he made acoustic experiments on the harmony of sound. In Pythagoras’ school, Hippasus was not only the founder the department of mathematics, but also the founder of the “cycle of acoustic scientists”, a body tasked with conducting experiments on sound and music using the aforementioned inventions. The body studied the relationship between music and mathematics.

According to some ancient writers, Hippasus was accused of publicizing secret Pythagorean knowledge to outsiders or uninitiated people, which was strictly forbidden by Pythagorean oath and was subsequently persecuted. Nevertheless, he is held on high regards by modern day historians of science.

Bibliography:

  1. Georgakopoulos, Konstantinos. Ancient Greek Scientists. Georgiades: Athens, 1996. Print.
  2. Σακελλαρίου, Γεώργιος. Πυθαγόρας Ο Διδάσκαλος τῶν Αἰώνων. Ἰδεοθέατρον. Ἀθῆναι: 1963. Print.
  3. “Hippasus”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Passas, I. Athens: 1946. Print.
  4. “Hippasus of Metapontum.” Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. Encyclopedia.com. 23 Apr. 2019<https://www.encyclopedia.com&gt;.
Hippasus

Zosimos of Panopolis

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Alchemist, Mystic (c.350 – c.420)

As the greatest alchemist of the ancient world, Zosimos is regarded as the father of chemistry, whose extensive work inaugurates the inception of chemistry as a science. Significantly influenced by Aristotle before him, Zosimos was also a mystic and a philosopher, responsible for imparting a higher level of mysticism and spiritualism to alchemy.

Born in the Greek city of Panopolis in Egypt, Zosimos studied in Alexandria where he also lived and worked for most part of his life. He was the first to establish the term chemistry and the first man to produce beer. His groundbreaking discoveries in chemistry were unparalleled for his time, rendering his craftsmanship almost legendary.

He wrote a total of 28 books on chemistry, which he dedicated to his sister Theosevia. He compiled extensive studies on metals and their properties, most importantly on vitriol (sulfuric acid). He discovered that sulfuric acid dissolves metal and conducted experiments by which he produced oxygen from hydrogen oxide. In his book On the Evaporation of the Divine Water that Fixes Mercury, Zosimos studies the properties of mercury and asbestos, while in his book Treatise on Instruments and Furnice he describes multiple chemical instruments used for his experiments as well as practical aspects of his experiments conducted. His book On the Production of Zythos contains the oldest recipe of beer production in the world while his book On the Sacred and Divine Art of Gold and Silver Production, Zosimos describes a recipe he discovered of how to convert noble gases into gold. This discovery caused immense commotion throughout the Byzantine Empire, forcing it to be kept in complete secrecy.

Zosimos’ books were available only between members of the royal family and did not circulate outside the palace. For this reason, his books contain numerous references on the secret he had sworn not to reveal and other phrases such as “Silence teaches virtue”.

Perhaps, however, Zosimos’ fame as an alchemist rose to considerable extent not solely as a scientist but for his involvement in the mysteries and the occult. Some of his works deal with the philosophical aspects of chemistry while others with the practice of magic. Zosimos was the first of a series of enthusiasts who sought the philosopher’s stone, as detailed in his book The Stone of Philosophy. One of his main philosophical principles was that the universe is an expression of different symbols and numbers, which bestow certain forces on everything. Furthermore, the celestial bodies have significant influence on man and chemistry. Other aspects of his philosophy include the origin of life, the philosophy of matter and the virtues of the philosopher’s stone. Zosimos’ most influential books on philosophy and the occult include the Book of the Keys of the Work, Imuth, The Stone of Philosophy and The Book of Pictures.

With his philosophical works, Zosimos is responsible for bestowing the mystical and mythical dimension to alchemy that we know today. His works exerted tremendous influence in the Arab world during the Golden Age of Islam, resulting into his works being translated into Arabic. Numerous other writers were involved with his work, namely Michael Psellos, Photios, Synesius of Cyrene and Ibn Umail, who characterized him as the “pinnacle of philosophers”. His discovery of transmuting noble gases into gold is said to have been taken by Marquise de Sade centuries after the Fall of Constantinople, with which he achieved doubling within a short period of time the gold of England.

Bibliography:

  1. Παπαζήσης, Ἰωάννης. Ἡ Ἐπιστημονικὴ Ἱστορία τοῦ Βυζαντίου. Ἐκδόσεις Ἥλεκτρον. Ἀθῆναι: 2018. Print.
  2. Zosimos of Panopolis.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Encyclopedia.com. 21 Apr. 2019 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.
Zosimos of Panopolis

Eurybiades

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Admiral (5th century BC)

Eurybiades was the Spartan general who commanded the Spartan naval forces in the Battle of Artemisium and the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC. Together with the wise Themistocles and the just Aristides they are hailed as the great leaders who orchestrated the victory of the Battle of Salamis during the second Persian invasion in Greece.

Not much is known about Eurybiades’ life. Prior to being chosen as an admiral of the Spartan fleet, he had acquired great naval battle skills as well as experience in the sea. His position imbued great respect and his orders were always followed without hesitation. The first major battle in which he is accounted to have played a decisive role was in the Battle of Artemisium against the Persian fleet, during the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC. The battle resulted into the Greek forces retreating to the island of Aegina after the arrival of the news that the Greeks, led by Leonidas and the 300 Spartans had fallen in the Battle of Thermopylae and the Persians were marching toward Athens.

In Aegina, the council of generals gathered and discussed their strategies. Themistocles proposed that the Greek fleet strike the Persian fleet at the straits of Salamis while the Peloponnesian navarchs objected the idea, insisting on retreating and facing the Persian fleet in Southern Italy. Eurybiades initially objected Themistocles’ plan but was persuaded afterwards, thanks to the later’s eloquence. Prudent as he was, Eurybiades could foresee the consequences of future events as well as understand the genius of Themistocles’ plan.

It was this simple decision that the Greeks united remained in Salamis and fought victoriously against Xerxes’ fleet, rescuing from Persian rule not only Greece but all of Europe. This simple decision, which changed the entire course of history, was the reason Eurybiades was glorified and was awarded an accolade for his bravery, while Themistocles an accolade for his wisdom.

After the Battle of Salamis, Eurybiades lived a peaceful life, choosing not to redeem his glory for a career in politics as did other Spartan generals. He kept a distance from public affairs not to spoil his reputation, at the prize of retaining his eternal glory in one of the greatest battles in history.

Bibliography:

  1. Βολωνάκης. Ἰωάννης. Τῆς Ἀρχαίας Ἑλλάδος οἱ Μεγάλοι Ἠγέται. Εκδόσεις Γεωργιάδης. Ἀθῆναι: 1997. Print.
Eurybiades

Iannis Xenakis

FRA/ PARIS: YANNIS XENAKIS COMPOSITEUR EN SEANCE DE POSE

Composer, Architect, Engineer, Mathematician (1922 – 2001)

Iannis Xenakis was one of the most important Greek philosopher-composers and architects of the 20th century. A pioneer in electronic music, he expressed the universe through music by transforming mathematical and physical laws into music. In this way, Xenakis founded what is known as stochastic music.

Born in Romania, Xenakis studied architecture in Athens and continued his studies in music in France, where he also worked for most part of his life. As most pioneers on their field, Xenakis was almost self-taught in music and would frequently be a subject of opposition by the mainstream composers of his time; few could see the potential he had within him, one of them being Olivier Messiaen, who encouraged him to take his own path, saying that he had the privilege of being an architect, having knowledge of applied mathematics and being a Greek.

Xenakis revolutionized the world of music by introducing the philosophy of unification of mathematics, music, physics and Greek philosophy. He applied at least 15 mathematical laws that govern the natural world to music in order to create what he would call stochastic music. Among these were the set theory, theory of probabilities, Boolean algebra, thermodynamics, game theory and the theory of numbers, the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden ratio. The fist of this genre was Metastaseis, composed in 1954. It marked Xenakis’ starting point in his music career.

With the term stochastic, Xenakis attempted to convey a philosophical meaning, that the transfer of mathematical laws and probability systems in music can allow expression of mass phenomena. It was a means of decoding the music that was hidden inside mathematics. To compose his music he began using an electronic computer, thus becoming one of the first composers to inaugurate its use in the composition of music worldwide. He combined his music with sounds of man and nature, such as the sound made by a cicada in summer or the rustle of a fallen autumn leaf, conferring to music a whole new energy. In all of his compositions, the ancient Greek spirit is present. Works like Herma, Oresteia, Persephassa, Pleiades, Psappha, Mycenes, Nomos all derive their names from ancient Greek mythology and denote Xenakis’ passion with the ancient Greek philosophy, from where he drew inspiration. As such, many did not hesitate to refer to him as a Neopythagorean philosopher.

Throughout his long-lasting career, Xenakis composed a staggering number of compositions, ranging from electronic music to orchestrals and opera, which earned him international recognition as a pioneer in music. His career in architecture did not fall behind not least; he had collaborated with Le Corbusier in France in a number of projects, the most well-known being the Philips Pavilion at the Brussels World Fair in 1958, which he himself designed and for which he received universal acclaim.

Xenakis’ last composition, Omega, signified the end of his highly productive career in 1997. By then, he had been made professor in many universities in Europe and the United States. He taught in the University of Sorbonne, founded the School of Mathematical and Autonomic Music in 1966 as well as the Center of Contemporary Music Research in Athens, published several books and was honoured with numerous international accolades.

Bibliography:

  1. Ιάννης Ξενάκης 1922 – 2001. Σαν Σήμερα. Sansimera.gr. February 9, 2019. Web.
  2. Κιούση, Βάσω. Ο «νεοπυθαγόρειος» Ιάννης Ξενάκης, η ζωή και το έργο του: από τη «στοχαστική» στη «συμβολική» μουσική. Fractal Η γεωμετρία των Ιδεών. Fractalart.gr. July 20, 2016. Web. February 9, 2019.
  3. Ιάννης Ξενάκης: Ἔνας «Νεοπυθαγόρειος» συνθέτης. TVXS. Tvxs.gr. February 4, 2011. Web. February 9, 2019.
Iannis Xenakis