Emmanouel Pappas


Hero of the Greek War of Independence (1772 – 1821)

Emmanouel Pappas was one of the greatest leading figures of the Greek War of Independence. He was a member of the Society of Friends (Philiki Hetaereia) and the one responsible for lighting the flame of the Greek War of Independence in Macedonia.

In spite of his poor education, Pappas became a prominent merchant and banker, with stores in Vienna and Constantinople. He would lend money to Turkish officials, thus exerting a powerful influence over the administration of Macedonia. After an event that nearly cost him his life, Pappas went to Constantinople where he was initiated to the Society of Friends and offered large amounts of money in its support.

In 1821, two days before the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, Pappas gathered arms and set sail for Hagion Oros, where he would prepare the peoples of Macedonia for the revolt. By June of the same year, the revolution had begun spreading rapidly throughout Macedonia. Pappas, in spite of the lack of food, arms and manpower exerted extraordinary efforts to awaken the subjugated Greeks of West and Central Macedonia, giving all of his fortune to support the war. In the Battle of Cassanda the Greeks lost the battle against the Ottomans. This marked the endpoint of Pappas’ struggles. Having barely survived the battle, he retreated to Hagion Oros, where the priests had made contract with the Ottoman forces to arrest him. Pappas fled from Hagion Oros on a boat, thanks to a monk named Cyrill, and arrived in Hydra, but dead, having suffered a heart attack.

Emmanouel Pappas was named “Leader and Protector of Macedonia”. He stood as one of the most virtuous heroes of the Greek War of Independence who sacrificed everything in the name of freedom of the Greek nation. Three of his eight sons fell in battle, one of them next to Papaflessas in the heroic Battle of Maniaki. He held the War of Independence alive in Chalkidiki for 6 months, inspiring the Greeks to rise against the oppressor and fight for their freedom.


  1. D-Mak. Eμμανουήλ Παπάς, ο Σερραίος αρχιστράτηγος των Mακεδονικών δυνάμεων της Eλληνική Eπανάστασης του 1821. History of Macedonia. History-of-macedonia.com. Web. April 15, 2010.
  2. Εμμανουήλ Παππάς. Σαν Σήμερα. Sansimera.gr. Web.
Emmanouel Pappas

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