Pytheos of Halicarnassus

Architect (4th century BC)

Pytheos of Halicarnassus, also known as Pythius of Priene, was the architect who, together with Satyros constructed the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The megastructure was built as a tomb to house the body of Mausolos, a satrap of Persia. Its name became synonymous to any large funeral monument used today as a tomb.

Almost nothing is known about Pytheos aside from some of the temples he constructed. By far the most famous one if the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, built between 355 and 350 BC. The whole structure was built on a base podium, on top of which was placed the crypt, surrounded by the temple, which had 36 Ionian rhythm columns around it. The roof consisted of a climactic pyramid of 24 steps, on top of which Pytheos placed a giant statue of Mausolos riding a chariot with 4 horses. The podium’s steps were decorated with scenery from the Titanomachy, Amazonomachy and Centauromachy while the outside of the crypt was decorated with sculptures of the best sculptors of the world, namely Leocharis, Bryaxis, Scopas, Timotheus and Praxiteles. At a height of 55 meters, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus became one of the most magnificent structures of the ancient Greek spirit.

Pytheos also constructed other temples. The Temple of Artemis Cybele in Sardes, which bears similarities to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus was designed and constructed by Pytheos as a replacement of the one destroyed in 497 BC. In addition, he designed the Temple of Athena Polias in Priene, which was ordered by Alexander the Great.

His architectural works were described in detail in a series of books that he wrote called Scholia. These books, which today have not survived, were some of the most important sources of ancient Greek architecture, on which Vitrivius also based his description.

Today, almost nothing remains of the wondorous mausoleum or any of Pytheus’ monuments, but rubbles, stones and pillars, a reminiscent of what used to be one of the greatest architectural masterpieces ever built by the Greeks, the ones who perfected architectural science.


  1. Georgakopoulos, Konstantinos. Ancient Greek Scientists. Georgiades: Athens, 1996. Print.
  2. Cartwright, Mark. “Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 26 Jul 2018. Web. 27 May 2019.
Pytheos of Halicarnassus



Philosopher (7th century BC)

Epimenides was a seer, a mystic, a prophet and a spiritual teacher of the early 7th century BC from Knossos of Crete. He excelled both as a lawmaker and a poet and is regarded as one of the most important representatives of Orphic theology and philosophy. Many aspects of Epimenides’ life and work remain either obscure or have been blended with myth.

Ancient accounts of Epimenides describe him as the prime practitioner of the “cathartic arts”, meaning a form of healing or cleansing of the soul. He possessed the ability, through theurgical rituals to cleanse physical and psychic miasmas, something referred to as Psychurgy.

Epimenides was a student of Pythagoras, whom he met when Pythagoras travelled to Crete in search of the initiates of Morgos. Epimenides took him to the Diktaean Cave where he performed him a spiritual cleansing and initiated him to the local Mysteries. In another account, when the city of Athens was plagued by an epidemic, the people sought help from the Oracle of Delphi, which told them to refer to Epimenides. When Epimenides came to Athens, he performed rituals to appease the Gods as well as to cleanse the city.

He is the author of multiple treatises on chresmos, instructions on cathartic and purification practices, on theurgy and rituals, each based upon the teachings of Orphic theology. Moreover, Epimenides wrote a Theogony although it is unknown to which extent it was similar to that of Hesiod. Together with Melampous and Onomacritus they form the triad of primary representatives of the Orphic Mysteries and was responsible for establishing the Eleusinian Mysteries and the Mysteries of Samothrace.

Epimenides is said to have slept in a cave for 57 years and that he died at the age of 154 or 299. Many Greeks accepted him as a favourite of the Gods as they believed that during his slumber he had communication with the Gods. From this myth came the expression Epimenidean Sleep, used when someone sleeps for extremely long time. In another myth, Epimenides is said to have advised Solon on the lawmaking of Athens. He was considered as the seventh of the Seven Sages of ancient Greece by some, instead of Periander. To him are attributed several quotes, the most famous one being the Epimenidean paradox «Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται» (Cretans always lie), since he himself was a Cretan.


  1. Επιμενίδης, ο μάντης από την Κρήτη που κοιμήθηκε σε μια σπηλιά για 57 ολόκληρα χρόνια. Γιατί οι Έλληνες τον θεώρησαν αγαπημένο των θεών και μπήκε στον κατάλογο των επτά σοφών στη θέση του Περίανδρου… Μηχανή του Χρόνου. Retreived on May 25, 2019. Web.
  2. “Epimenides”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Passas, I. Athens: 1946. Print.
  3. Σακελλαρίου, Γεώργιος. Πυθαγόρας Ο Διδάσκαλος τῶν Αἰώνων. Ἰδεοθέατρον. Ἀθῆναι: 1963. Print.
  4. Γράβιγγερ, Πέτρος. Ὁ Πυθαγόρας καὶ ἡ Μυστικὴ Διδασκαλία τοῦ Πυθαγορισμοῦ. Ιδεοθέατρον Διμελῆ. Ἀθῆναι: 1998. Print.

Pavlos Santorinis


Physicist, Engineer, Inventor (1893 – 1986)

Pavlos Santorinis was a physicist, civil engineer and professor of experimental physics in the National Polytechnic School of Athens. He was one of the most important researchers and inventors of the 20th century, with expertise in numerous fields such as statistics, electromagnetic waves, hydraulics and energy from natural resources. He is most widely known today as the inventor of the radar.

Santorinis published over 100 original scientific research papers in the most presitgious French and German science journals. Among his most notable contributions were the discovery of the discontinuous internal deformation of concrete and its experimental proof, the measurement of elastic oscillations of metallic bridge using electronic layouts which he himself invented, the discovery of new phenomena of electrons and electromagnetic waves and the invention of a device that measured the wavelength of very low frequency electromagnetic waves. In 1936 he formulated the principle of bomb explosion above the ground’s surface in a given height, which was applied by the Americans during the bombing of Hiroshima. The same year, Santorinis invented the fuze, upon which was based the Proximity Fuze used by the Allied Forces in 1944, termed “the 2nd most dangerous weapon in America”.

From 1936 to 1940, Pavlos Santorinis developed one of the most groundbreaking inventions known to man, the radar. Developed only a few years earlier than Robert Watson Watt’s radar, the Hellenic Radar, as it came to be known, was an ecatostometric radar, meaning it had the ability to detect electromagnetic waves with wavelength ranging from 5 cm to 200 km. In 1940 the radar successfully detected the first aircraft, which was a British airplane travelling over Melos, 160 km away. Santorinis’ invention revolutionized the airforce. Prior to the radar, the airforce relied on watchers with binoculars and rudimentary acoustic instruments for the detection of enemy aircrafts. Santorinis’ radar enabled the army to detect enemy aircrafts from very long distances and track the enemy’s movements safely and in secrecy. Upon its first successful operation, Ioannis Metaxas passed the blueprints to the British government, resulting in the radar’s debut in the Second World War in 1942.

Following his success with the radar, Santorinis accomplished the production of electromagnetic waves beyond the visible specturm while in 1942 he invented the “Electronic Brain H” (Ἠλεκτρονικὸς Ἐγκέφαλος Η), a complex system that enabled the automatic piloting of missiles against a moving object. The device’s full potential was only realized in 1953, when it was utilized by the US and was named “Nike” meaning Victory. He had numerous other scientific achievements, namely improving the usage methods of solar energy and wind energy for various applications.

Pavlos Santorinis was also cocnerned with theoretical and sometimes philosophical aspects of physics. In 1968 he formulated the theory of multiple successive micro-explosions of the universe, which came to overthrow the Big Bang theory while in 1974 he hypothesized a new principle, that of “The Declining Entropy of the Universe”. Santorinis was also a personal friend of Albert Einstein; he would solve him various mathematical and physics problems that Einstein couldn’t. He spoke 6 languages and taught in multiple universities both inside and outside of Greece.

Even though today Pavlos Santorinis’ name is not as well-known as would be expected, he received widespread recognition worldwide and was celebrated internationally. He was the recipient of the Fermat Prize by the Academy of Sciences of Toulouse in 1961, the Vermeil Prize by the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1968 and 1969, and the French Society of Progress prize in 1969. The same year, the British awarded Santorinis for his invention of the radar, acknowledging that he invented it 4 years before them. Finally, Santorinis was awarded the Order of the Phoenix by the royal family of Greece. He died in 1986 at the age of 93.


  1. Ἀϋφαντῆς, Γεώργιος. Ἄνθρωπος καὶ Ἐπιστήμη Τόμος Α’: Ἐνημέρωσις. Ἐκδόσεις Ἑλληνικὸν Σέλας. Ἀθῆναι: 2009. Print.
  2. Παύλος Σαντορίνης, ο Ἕλληνας που ανακάλυψε το ραντάρ. Δίοδος, Η Πύλη της Γνώσης. May 15, 2019. Web.
  3. Σαντορίνης Παῦλος. Μεγάλη Στοὰ τῆς Ἑλλάδος. May 15, 2019. Web.
  4. Spanopoulos. B.A. “Pavlos Santorinis”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Passas, I. Athens: 1946. Print.
Pavlos Santorinis



Tragic Poet (495 BC – 406 BC)

One of the greatest tragic poets to have ever lived, Sophocles, together with Aeschylus and Euripides form the holy triad of tragic poetry and theater arts. The writer of world-renowned plays such as Oedepus, Antigone and Philoctetes, Sophocles exerted enormous influence in the world of theater in the distant past when the aim of theater was not for entertainment as is today’s but for education and spiritual cleansing.

Sophocles was born in Athens to a wealthy, aristocratic family. He received an excellent education for his times, learning music from acclaimed teachers and tragic poetry from Aeschylus’ plays. As a playwright, Sophocles made his debut in front of the Greek audience in 468 BC at the age of 28 with his first play Triptolemos. His play won him his first prize, winning over Aeschylus, who had dominated the hearts of Athenian men as the greatest of all tragic poets. This signaled the rise of a new genius in tragic poetry and marked the start of Sophocles’ long and successful career.

Sophocles was an emblematic figure in the Athenian society and an exemplary citizen. In 443 – 442, following the massive acclaim of his play Antigone, Sophocles was made an honorary general and together with Pericles took part in the battle against the Samiotes. The same year he served as president of the Greek treasury. Widely popular throughout the whole Greece, he was a close friend of both of his rivals Aechylus, whom he considered his mentor and Euripides, whom he admired. Additionally, Sophocles was a good friend of Herodotus whom he also admired greatly, a feeling that was mutual between the two.

There is a general disagreement among historians concerning the total number of Sophocles’ works. It is generally accepted, however, the total number to be around 123. Sophocles won 1st place a total of 20 times and never ranked lower than second place in any competition that he participated in. His plays, which still luster with the same greatness as they did thousands of years ago, draw inspiration from the rich stories of the ancient Greek tradition, the world of the ancient Greek mythology, which relfects the states of man’s soul. It was this soul that Sophocles’ tragedies aimed to provoke and disturb and ultimately cleanse during the climax of the play, leading to its catharsis.

Not only is Sophocles a tragic poet. He is a philosopher, a hierophant, an initiate of the Mystery Schools, as was Aeschylus before him, a profound connoisseur of the Dionysean and Apollonian Mysteries, an anatomist of the human soul. The center of Sophocles’ plays is Man. In contrast, however to his predecessor, Sophocles’ characters act within the natural world and within the normal human boundaries. They are, nevertheless, braver than the average man, engulfed by the sense of justice and ethical duty, possessing ideals and principles for which they are willing at any given moment to sacrifice themselves to defend them, an iron will to overcome situations that exceed the human dimensions. In Sophocles’ plays, the characters’ actions are born from within themselves and are not a cause of an external or divine force. Hence, Sophocles’ tragedies are born from the struggle of man to overcome their nature and their fate. Through the drama, Sophocles’ ultimate goal is the apotheosis of man, which he considers the most amazing being of the universe (πολλὰ τὰ δεινά, κοὐδὲν ἀνθρώπου δεινότερον πέλει).

The innovations which Sophocles introduced in theater were numerous. He increased the total number of actors on the stage from 2 to 3, and the dancers of the chorus from 12 to 15. The chorus thus served as a protagonist and as a commentator. He furthermore introduced the Phyrgic melody in his plays. Even though an actor himself, Sophocles did not act in his own plays, as did his predecessors. He is the first to introduce the psychological aspect in the drama, with his characters seeking to shed light to their innermost, darkest places of their soul. The characters gain for the first time in theater a three-dimensional and psychological aspect and their actions imbue admiration to the spectator. It was Sophocles’ breakthrough to portray characters not as they normally are, but how they should be. That is, the idealization of the human soul.

In general, Sophocles’ works befall in the following categories: Theogony and the birth of the Gods, on the geneology of Deucalion, on the Argonauts’ expedition, on the geneology of Heracles, Inachus, Cadmus and Europe, on the geneology of the Pelasgians, Cecrops, the children of Tandalos and lastly on the Iliad and the Odyssey. Of the 123 plays, all but 7 survive only in fragments. These 7 plays are the following:

  • Antigone – About a young woman who disobeys the law to perform a righteous act.
  • Ajax – A play centered on the Trojan hero Ajax, with the themes revolving around polemic virtue and dignity.
  • Oedipus Tyrranus – A timeless classic on the tragic life of King Oedipus and his fate.
  • Trachiniae – About Deianira and the accidental murder of her husband Hercules.
  • Electra – A story of two siblings taking revenge on their father’s death.
  • Philoctetes – On the persuation of Trojan hero Philoctetes by Odysseus to join the Trojan War and fulfill the prophecy of the fall of Troy.
  • Oedipus at Colonus – The final part of the Oedipus trilogy masterpiece.

The main theme that is projected from Sophocles’ work is the highest ethical ideal of Hellenism: the harmony between the duty and freedom.

Sophocles is the primary representative of atticism, with his plays being the embodiment of everything the Athenian classicism of the 5th century BC epitomized, namely the philosophy, the religion, the ethics, the education, the Athenian land and nature and above all, all the high virtues of mankind, which Greece raised and placed in the center of man’s soul. Sophocles continued from where Aeschylus left the development of tragic poetry and brought it to the limits of perfection. He was called by many as the Homer of tragic poetry. With his works, tragic poetry and theatre arts as a whole reach their apogee. As Friedrich Nietzsche writes in his book The Birth of TragedyThe art of Aeschylus and Sophocles originate from the artistic ideal of the perfect harmony of the Dionysean and Apollonian spirits”.

With Sophocles, tragic poetry transcends the boundaries of art, becoming a means of spiritual exaltation and Greek Meditation. His immortal masterpieces are children of the Greek spirit, the Greek Miracle, which, as N.D. Korkofinis puts beautifully in the Encyclopaedia of the Sun “[The Greek art, the Greek philosophy, the immortal ancient Greek spirit] gift the entire human race its freedom from the horrors and agony of its earthly life. And this service is the highest service of the Greek world to all Humanity”.


  1. “Sophocles”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. N.D. Korkofinis, Passas, I. Athens: 1946. Print.
  2. Cartwright, Mark. Sophocles. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Sep 2013. Web. 09 May 2019.
  3. Δρακόπουλος, Ναστούλης, Ρώμας. Σοφοκλέους Τραγωδίαι – Ἀντιγόνη Φιλοκτήτης. Οργανισμός Εκδόσεως Διδακτικών Βιβλίων – Αθήνα. Υπουργείο Εθνικής Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων. Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο.

Neophytos Metaxas


Archbishop, Writer, Hero of the Greek War of Independence (1762 – 1861)

Neophytos Metaxas (real name Nikolaos), is one of the national heroes of the Greek War of Independence, serving as the first Archbishop of Athens during Greece’s inception as a free nation. Together with Athanasios Diakos and Isaiah of Salona, Neophytos was the main protagonist of the Greek War of Independence in Sterea Hellada (Central Greece) and responsible for its outbreak there.

He descended from the noble Metaxas family, the same from which another great leader of the Greek nation, Ioannis Metaxas descended. He studied in Athens and became a teacher before moving to Constantinople. In 1803 he returned to Athens and was appointed Bishop of Talantion.

On March 27, 1821, 2 days after the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence, Neophtos Metaxas together with Athanasios Diakos and Isaiah of Salona declared the outbreak of the war in Central Greece and blessed the weapons of the Greeks. In spite of his old age, Neophytos was a heroic figure in the Greek War of Independence, partaking actively in multiple battles and offering great material and spiritual support. Together with Athanasios Diakos they mobilized the Greek forces, liberating Locris and Atalante. He inspired, wrote letters to and recruited numerous Greeks to the war, most notably the heroine Manto Mavrogenous. In addition, Neophytos served as president of the judicial department of Areios Pagos, the Supreme Court of Greece, took part in the Assembly of Salona, the first National Assembly of Epidaurus and the Assembly of Astros. He was a member of the Philomousos Society and the Philekpedeutic Society, concerned with the financial support of the war and education respectively.

Following the independence of Greece as a nation, Neophytos was appointed member of the educational committee for supervising the general function of the Church. A close friend of John Kapodistrias, the first governor of Greece, he occupied several positions as Bishop and place-warden, namely Bishop of Attica, Metropolitan of Athens and eventually President of the Holy Synod and Archbishop of Athens.

As Archbishop for 28 years, Neophytos became the longest-serving Archbishop in Greek history. He is recognized as one of the most important and influential figures in the ecclesiastical history of Greece, having worked tirelessly and with the utmost dedication for the development of the Church, its proper function, its laws and its service to society. During Otto’s reign and the Bavarians’ involvement in the administration of the state, Neophytos was the one who defended the Church and its rights. He wrote numerous books and articles on theology and was honoured with the silver medal for his contributions to the Greek nation. He died in 1861 almost at the age of 100.


    1. Αρχιεπίσκοπος Νεόφυτος. Metapedia. Web.
    2. Η αντίσταση του ηρωικού Επισκόπου Ταλαντίου Νεόφυτου Μεταξά, στις αντιεκκλησιαστικές αξιώσεις της Τρόϊκας του Όθωνα. Η Θεοσκέπαστη Γή των Μετεώρων. April 29, 2019. Web.



Neophytos Metaxas



Philosopher, Mathematician (c.500 BC)

Hippasus of Mentapontus was a Pythagorean philosopher, one of Pythagoras’ first students initiated into Pythagoreanism and founder of the Mathematical Department of Pythagoras’ School.

He was active during the first 30 years of the 6th century BC and is considered as one of the oldest Pythagorean philosophers, as well as Pythagoras’ first assistant. While himself Pythagorean, Hippasus’ teachings differed slightly from those of Pythagoreans. For instance, he believed that the beginning of the world is matter (fire) rather than immaterial (numbers). He wrote a book Secret Logos, which he published under the name of Pythagoras, containing his philosophy. Only fragments of his book survive today.

As a mathematician, Hippasus is the discoverer of irrational numbers, infinite decimals with no indefinitely repeating digits. Furthermore, he discovered that the ratio of a side of a pentagon to the diagonal of a pentagon is equal to an irrational number and that the length of an isosceles’ triangle shorter side is an irrational number if the length of the two equal sides is a whole one.

Not surprisingly, Hippasus was also an inventor. He is credited as having constructed containers with varying amounts of water each, including metal plates of varying thickness with which he made acoustic experiments on the harmony of sound. In Pythagoras’ school, Hippasus was not only the founder the department of mathematics, but also the founder of the “cycle of acoustic scientists”, a body tasked with conducting experiments on sound and music using the aforementioned inventions. The body studied the relationship between music and mathematics.

According to some ancient writers, Hippasus was accused of publicizing secret Pythagorean knowledge to outsiders or uninitiated people, which was strictly forbidden by Pythagorean oath and was subsequently persecuted. Nevertheless, he is held on high regards by modern day historians of science.


  1. Georgakopoulos, Konstantinos. Ancient Greek Scientists. Georgiades: Athens, 1996. Print.
  2. Σακελλαρίου, Γεώργιος. Πυθαγόρας Ο Διδάσκαλος τῶν Αἰώνων. Ἰδεοθέατρον. Ἀθῆναι: 1963. Print.
  3. “Hippasus”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Passas, I. Athens: 1946. Print.
  4. “Hippasus of Metapontum.” Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. 23 Apr. 2019<;.

Zosimos of Panopolis


Alchemist, Mystic (c.350 – c.420)

As the greatest alchemist of the ancient world, Zosimos is regarded as the father of chemistry, whose extensive work inaugurates the inception of chemistry as a science. Significantly influenced by Aristotle before him, Zosimos was also a mystic and a philosopher, responsible for imparting a higher level of mysticism and spiritualism to alchemy.

Born in the Greek city of Panopolis in Egypt, Zosimos studied in Alexandria where he also lived and worked for most part of his life. He was the first to establish the term chemistry and the first man to produce beer. His groundbreaking discoveries in chemistry were unparalleled for his time, rendering his craftsmanship almost legendary.

He wrote a total of 28 books on chemistry, which he dedicated to his sister Theosevia. He compiled extensive studies on metals and their properties, most importantly on vitriol (sulfuric acid). He discovered that sulfuric acid dissolves metal and conducted experiments by which he produced oxygen from hydrogen oxide. In his book On the Evaporation of the Divine Water that Fixes Mercury, Zosimos studies the properties of mercury and asbestos, while in his book Treatise on Instruments and Furnice he describes multiple chemical instruments used for his experiments as well as practical aspects of his experiments conducted. His book On the Production of Zythos contains the oldest recipe of beer production in the world while his book On the Sacred and Divine Art of Gold and Silver Production, Zosimos describes a recipe he discovered of how to convert noble gases into gold. This discovery caused immense commotion throughout the Byzantine Empire, forcing it to be kept in complete secrecy.

Zosimos’ books were available only between members of the royal family and did not circulate outside the palace. For this reason, his books contain numerous references on the secret he had sworn not to reveal and other phrases such as “Silence teaches virtue”.

Perhaps, however, Zosimos’ fame as an alchemist rose to considerable extent not solely as a scientist but for his involvement in the mysteries and the occult. Some of his works deal with the philosophical aspects of chemistry while others with the practice of magic. Zosimos was the first of a series of enthusiasts who sought the philosopher’s stone, as detailed in his book The Stone of Philosophy. One of his main philosophical principles was that the universe is an expression of different symbols and numbers, which bestow certain forces on everything. Furthermore, the celestial bodies have significant influence on man and chemistry. Other aspects of his philosophy include the origin of life, the philosophy of matter and the virtues of the philosopher’s stone. Zosimos’ most influential books on philosophy and the occult include the Book of the Keys of the Work, Imuth, The Stone of Philosophy and The Book of Pictures.

With his philosophical works, Zosimos is responsible for bestowing the mystical and mythical dimension to alchemy that we know today. His works exerted tremendous influence in the Arab world during the Golden Age of Islam, resulting into his works being translated into Arabic. Numerous other writers were involved with his work, namely Michael Psellos, Photios, Synesius of Cyrene and Ibn Umail, who characterized him as the “pinnacle of philosophers”. His discovery of transmuting noble gases into gold is said to have been taken by Marquise de Sade centuries after the Fall of Constantinople, with which he achieved doubling within a short period of time the gold of England.


  1. Παπαζήσης, Ἰωάννης. Ἡ Ἐπιστημονικὴ Ἱστορία τοῦ Βυζαντίου. Ἐκδόσεις Ἥλεκτρον. Ἀθῆναι: 2018. Print.
  2. Zosimos of Panopolis.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 21 Apr. 2019 <>.
Zosimos of Panopolis