Callippus

Mathematician, Astronomer, Philosopher (c.370 BC – c.300 BC)

A lesser known astronomer compared to Aristarchus and Eratosthenes is Callippus of Cyzicus. His work in creating the Callippic Period or Callippic Cycle made the determination of the length of the solar year more accurate. It subsequently replaced the Metonic Cycle and was adopted by all later astronomers starting from as early as 330 BC.

He studied in Cyzicus. He was a student of Polemarchus and Eudoxus, both great astronomers, the later of whom he succeeded as director of the School of Cyzicus. According to Simplicius, Callippus settled in Athens where he worked close to Aristotle. The two collaborated in correcting and perfecting Eudoxus’ works.

Callippus is responsible for introducing thr Callippic Period, otherwise known as the Callippic Cycle in astronomy. Before him, Meton of Athens had calculated that one year is comprised of 365 days. The Metonic Cycle consisted of a 19-year period during which certain celestial phenomena such as lunar and solar eclipses repeated. This meant that Meton had estimated the year slighlty longer than it actually is. Callippus on the other hand gave a more precise estimation, determining that one year is comprised of 365,25 days. He noted that for a more accurate calculation of the duration of the year, the period should be four times that of the Metonic Cycle minus one day. This time period of 76 years came to be known as the Callippic Cycle.

Another important contribution to astronomy was the correction of Eudoxus’ system of homocentric spheres. Adding 7 more spheres, one to each planet, to Eudoxus’ proposed system increased the total number to 34. In this manner Callippus increased the accuracy of Eudoxus’ model and enabled a better understanding of the motion of the celestial spheres in the solar system. Furthermore, Callippus discovered that the duration of the seasons were not equal, rather: spring 94 days, summer 92 days, fall 89 days and winter 90. His discoveries were all written down in his books, none of which survive except from their titles.

Overall, Callippus’ discoveries contributed much to the development of astronomy, perhaps mostly for the future astronomers to make more accurate theories and estimations. Today a lunar crater is named in his honour.

Bibliography:

  1. Chasapis, K.S. “Callippus”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Passas I. Athens: 1946. Print.
  2. Georgakopoulos, Konstantinos. Ancient Greek Scientists. Georgiades: Athens, 1996. Print.
  3. J.J. O’Connor, E.F. Robertson. Callippus of Cyzicus. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrew, Scotland. Mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk. Web.
Callippus

Erasistratus

michel-martin-drolling-erasistratus-diagnosing-the-cause-of-antiochus-illness.jpg

Physician (c.305 BC – c.240 BC)

Erasistratus was a physician of the Alexandrian era, who, together with Herophilus founded the School of Anatomy of Alexandria. A pioneer in observing and describing the human anatomy and its pathology, Erasistratus’ multiple groundbreaking discoveries in many different fields of medicine as well as his methods of diagnosis and treatment of human diseases secured him a position next to Hippocrates as one of the greatest physicians in the history of medicine.

Erasistratus worked in many places throughout the Greek world, most notably in Syria, where he served as the physician of Emperor Seleucos I Nicator. Undoubtedly his most prolific years, however, were in Alexandria, Egypt, where he worked in the School of Anatomy in the Museum of Alexandria. There he taught anatomy, performed some of the first public anatomic dissections together with Herophilus and made numerous revolutionary discoveries in anatomy.

His studies on the nervous system are extensive. He established the nature of the human brain as the center of mental processes, described its gyri, the ventricles and the cerebellum. He distinguished the motor from sensory neurons and studied extensively the cranial nerves. On the cardiovascular system Erasistratus discovered the tricuspid valve and described its function. He possessed knowledge on the heart’s role as the center of the cardiovascular system as well as the flow of blood through the veins. Moreover, Erasistratus knew about the existence of amastomoses between arteries and veins, established the function of the lymph vessels, which he referred to as “white vessels”, described the excretion of bile from the gallbladder but did not explain its role and was the first to denote the function of the epiglottis, as well as prove that fluids did not pass from the trachea.

Considered as the father of comparative anatomy, Erasistratus also performed dissections on dead animals so as to compare their anatomy to that of humans. He is considered not only the founder of experimental physiology but also of pathologic anatomy. His gross pathologic descriptions of pericarditis, cirrhotic liver, hydrops, jaundice as well as of intestinal and bladder diseases were the first recorded in history and formed the basis of the science of modern pathology.

As excellent as Erasistratus was in describing and teaching anatomy, equally capable he was as a physician in diagnosing and treating diseases. Working primarily as an internist and a surgeon, Erasistratus perfomed paracentesis for the drainage of ascites, invented a sigmoid catheter for the decompression of the urinary bladder as well as a device used for artificial abortions. He restrained from using too many drugs, confining in local herbs and remedies, diuretics and induced emesis, while giving special importance to the healing powers of nutrition and hygiene. He wrote a wide range of books of which only the titles survive. Some of them where Anatomies, On Causes, On Fevers, On the Diseases of the Abdomen, On Hydrops, On Paresis and Paralysis, On Gout and On Digestion.

Even though he was against many of Hippocrates’ theories and notions, Erasistratus condemned superstition and always interpreted man’s functions and illeness with logic. He had numerous students who themselves became notable physicians. Following his death, Erasistratus was recognized as one of the greatest teachers of anatomy and as a prodigious researcher whose innovations helped in the understaning of the human body and the evolution of medicine.

Bibliography:

  1. Pournaropoulos. G.K. “Erasistratos”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Passas I. Athens: 1946. Print.
  2. “Erasistratos”. Suda Lexicon. Georgiades: 2010. Print.
Erasistratus

Lorentzos Mavilis

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Poet (1860 – 1912)

Lorentzos (Laurence) Mavilis was a poet, translator, Member of the Greek Parliament, chess problems composer and an impassioned patriot, considered the last representative of the Heptanesian School. A restless spirit with pure nationalist ideals, Mavilis is regarded as Greece’s most important sonet writer.

He was born in Corfu. He was of Spanish descent from his father’s side, while his mother was of Greek descent, and was the niece of John Kapodistria, the first Governor of Greece. Mavilis studied philology in the Universities of Athens, Munich and Freiburg and was appointed professor of classical studies in the University of Erlangen.

Mavilis occupied a high position in the Greek letters primarily as a sonet writer. A member of the Heptanesian School since his return to Greece in 1893, his writings were influenced to a great extent by Dionysios Solomos, the founder of the Heptanesian School, as well as by the German literary movements of his time. The core theme that predominates in all of Mavilis’ works is his love for Greece. His most notable sonets, including Fatherland, For the Fatherland, Olive and In the Fullness of Time are all odes to Hellenism, an encomium to all those who sacrificed their lives for Greece and the higher values of life that lead to man’s virtue.

Apart from his career in writing, Mavilis was also an avid chess player and a renowned chess problems composer, having won multiple matches, most notably the 3rd Bavarian Chess Association Congress in Resenburg in 1890 under the pseudonym Dr. L. Greco. As a polyglott, he translated multiple works, among them Shelley, Lord Byron, Virgil and an excerpt of the Indian epic Mahabharata.

Throughout his whole life, Mavilis was a fighter. Immediately after he returned to Greece from Germany, he joined the revolt of Crete as the leader of a small force for the liberation of the island from the Ottoman yoke, while in 1897 he joined the Greek army as a volunteer during the Graeco-Turkish War. His life’s highest act, however, was during the Balkan Wars in 1912 when Mavilis, having yet again joined the army voluntarily, fell heroically in the Battle of Driskon when he was fatally shot in the neck. His gratitude for the final act of his sacrifice is forever reflected by his final words: “I was expecting honours from this war, but not the honour to die for Greece”.

Bibliography:

  1. Λορέντζος Μαβίλης: «Δὲν είχα φανταστεί ποτέ ότι θα είχα την μεγάλη τιμή να πεθάνω για την Ἑλλάδα». Πεμπτουσία. Pemptousia.gr. November 29, 2017. Web.
  2. Λορέντζος Μαβίλης. Σαν Σήμερα. Sansimera.gr. Web.
  3. Lorentzos Mavilis…a poet, a fighter, a chess player. www.chess.com. March 10, 2019. Web. <https://www.chess.com/blog/introuble2/lorentzos-mavilis-a-poet-a-fighter-a-chess-player>
Lorentzos Mavilis

Pytheos of Halicarnassus

Architect (4th century BC)

Pytheos of Halicarnassus, also known as Pythius of Priene, was the architect who, together with Satyros constructed the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The megastructure was built as a tomb to house the body of Mausolos, a satrap of Persia. Its name became synonymous to any large funeral monument used today as a tomb.

Almost nothing is known about Pytheos aside from some of the temples he constructed. By far the most famous one if the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, built between 355 and 350 BC. The whole structure was built on a base podium, on top of which was placed the crypt, surrounded by the temple, which had 36 Ionian rhythm columns around it. The roof consisted of a climactic pyramid of 24 steps, on top of which Pytheos placed a giant statue of Mausolos riding a chariot with 4 horses. The podium’s steps were decorated with scenery from the Titanomachy, Amazonomachy and Centauromachy while the outside of the crypt was decorated with sculptures of the best sculptors of the world, namely Leocharis, Bryaxis, Scopas, Timotheus and Praxiteles. At a height of 55 meters, the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus became one of the most magnificent structures of the ancient Greek spirit.

Pytheos also constructed other temples. The Temple of Artemis Cybele in Sardes, which bears similarities to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus was designed and constructed by Pytheos as a replacement of the one destroyed in 497 BC. In addition, he designed the Temple of Athena Polias in Priene, which was ordered by Alexander the Great.

His architectural works were described in detail in a series of books that he wrote called Scholia. These books, which today have not survived, were some of the most important sources of ancient Greek architecture, on which Vitrivius also based his description.

Today, almost nothing remains of the wondorous mausoleum or any of Pytheus’ monuments, but rubbles, stones and pillars, a reminiscent of what used to be one of the greatest architectural masterpieces ever built by the Greeks, the ones who perfected architectural science.

Bibliography:

  1. Georgakopoulos, Konstantinos. Ancient Greek Scientists. Georgiades: Athens, 1996. Print.
  2. Cartwright, Mark. “Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 26 Jul 2018. Web. 27 May 2019.
Pytheos of Halicarnassus

Epimenides

epimenides

Philosopher (7th century BC)

Epimenides was a seer, a mystic, a prophet and a spiritual teacher of the early 7th century BC from Knossos of Crete. He excelled both as a lawmaker and a poet and is regarded as one of the most important representatives of Orphic theology and philosophy. Many aspects of Epimenides’ life and work remain either obscure or have been blended with myth.

Ancient accounts of Epimenides describe him as the prime practitioner of the “cathartic arts”, meaning a form of healing or cleansing of the soul. He possessed the ability, through theurgical rituals to cleanse physical and psychic miasmas, something referred to as Psychurgy.

Epimenides was a student of Pythagoras, whom he met when Pythagoras travelled to Crete in search of the initiates of Morgos. Epimenides took him to the Diktaean Cave where he performed him a spiritual cleansing and initiated him to the local Mysteries. In another account, when the city of Athens was plagued by an epidemic, the people sought help from the Oracle of Delphi, which told them to refer to Epimenides. When Epimenides came to Athens, he performed rituals to appease the Gods as well as to cleanse the city.

He is the author of multiple treatises on chresmos, instructions on cathartic and purification practices, on theurgy and rituals, each based upon the teachings of Orphic theology. Moreover, Epimenides wrote a Theogony although it is unknown to which extent it was similar to that of Hesiod. Together with Melampous and Onomacritus they form the triad of primary representatives of the Orphic Mysteries and was responsible for establishing the Eleusinian Mysteries and the Mysteries of Samothrace.

Epimenides is said to have slept in a cave for 57 years and that he died at the age of 154 or 299. Many Greeks accepted him as a favourite of the Gods as they believed that during his slumber he had communication with the Gods. From this myth came the expression Epimenidean Sleep, used when someone sleeps for extremely long time. In another myth, Epimenides is said to have advised Solon on the lawmaking of Athens. He was considered as the seventh of the Seven Sages of ancient Greece by some, instead of Periander. To him are attributed several quotes, the most famous one being the Epimenidean paradox «Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται» (Cretans always lie), since he himself was a Cretan.

Bibliography:

  1. Επιμενίδης, ο μάντης από την Κρήτη που κοιμήθηκε σε μια σπηλιά για 57 ολόκληρα χρόνια. Γιατί οι Έλληνες τον θεώρησαν αγαπημένο των θεών και μπήκε στον κατάλογο των επτά σοφών στη θέση του Περίανδρου… Μηχανή του Χρόνου. Mixanitouxronou.gr. Retreived on May 25, 2019. Web.
  2. “Epimenides”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Passas, I. Athens: 1946. Print.
  3. Σακελλαρίου, Γεώργιος. Πυθαγόρας Ο Διδάσκαλος τῶν Αἰώνων. Ἰδεοθέατρον. Ἀθῆναι: 1963. Print.
  4. Γράβιγγερ, Πέτρος. Ὁ Πυθαγόρας καὶ ἡ Μυστικὴ Διδασκαλία τοῦ Πυθαγορισμοῦ. Ιδεοθέατρον Διμελῆ. Ἀθῆναι: 1998. Print.
Epimenides

Pavlos Santorinis

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Physicist, Engineer, Inventor (1893 – 1986)

Pavlos Santorinis was a physicist, civil engineer and professor of experimental physics in the National Polytechnic School of Athens. He was one of the most important researchers and inventors of the 20th century, with expertise in numerous fields such as statistics, electromagnetic waves, hydraulics and energy from natural resources. He is most widely known today as the inventor of the radar.

Santorinis published over 100 original scientific research papers in the most presitgious French and German science journals. Among his most notable contributions were the discovery of the discontinuous internal deformation of concrete and its experimental proof, the measurement of elastic oscillations of metallic bridge using electronic layouts which he himself invented, the discovery of new phenomena of electrons and electromagnetic waves and the invention of a device that measured the wavelength of very low frequency electromagnetic waves. In 1936 he formulated the principle of bomb explosion above the ground’s surface in a given height, which was applied by the Americans during the bombing of Hiroshima. The same year, Santorinis invented the fuze, upon which was based the Proximity Fuze used by the Allied Forces in 1944, termed “the 2nd most dangerous weapon in America”.

From 1936 to 1940, Pavlos Santorinis developed one of the most groundbreaking inventions known to man, the radar. Developed only a few years earlier than Robert Watson Watt’s radar, the Hellenic Radar, as it came to be known, was an ecatostometric radar, meaning it had the ability to detect electromagnetic waves with wavelength ranging from 5 cm to 200 km. In 1940 the radar successfully detected the first aircraft, which was a British airplane travelling over Melos, 160 km away. Santorinis’ invention revolutionized the airforce. Prior to the radar, the airforce relied on watchers with binoculars and rudimentary acoustic instruments for the detection of enemy aircrafts. Santorinis’ radar enabled the army to detect enemy aircrafts from very long distances and track the enemy’s movements safely and in secrecy. Upon its first successful operation, Ioannis Metaxas passed the blueprints to the British government, resulting in the radar’s debut in the Second World War in 1942.

Following his success with the radar, Santorinis accomplished the production of electromagnetic waves beyond the visible specturm while in 1942 he invented the “Electronic Brain H” (Ἠλεκτρονικὸς Ἐγκέφαλος Η), a complex system that enabled the automatic piloting of missiles against a moving object. The device’s full potential was only realized in 1953, when it was utilized by the US and was named “Nike” meaning Victory. He had numerous other scientific achievements, namely improving the usage methods of solar energy and wind energy for various applications.

Pavlos Santorinis was also cocnerned with theoretical and sometimes philosophical aspects of physics. In 1968 he formulated the theory of multiple successive micro-explosions of the universe, which came to overthrow the Big Bang theory while in 1974 he hypothesized a new principle, that of “The Declining Entropy of the Universe”. Santorinis was also a personal friend of Albert Einstein; he would solve him various mathematical and physics problems that Einstein couldn’t. He spoke 6 languages and taught in multiple universities both inside and outside of Greece.

Even though today Pavlos Santorinis’ name is not as well-known as would be expected, he received widespread recognition worldwide and was celebrated internationally. He was the recipient of the Fermat Prize by the Academy of Sciences of Toulouse in 1961, the Vermeil Prize by the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 1968 and 1969, and the French Society of Progress prize in 1969. The same year, the British awarded Santorinis for his invention of the radar, acknowledging that he invented it 4 years before them. Finally, Santorinis was awarded the Order of the Phoenix by the royal family of Greece. He died in 1986 at the age of 93.

Bibliography:

  1. Ἀϋφαντῆς, Γεώργιος. Ἄνθρωπος καὶ Ἐπιστήμη Τόμος Α’: Ἐνημέρωσις. Ἐκδόσεις Ἑλληνικὸν Σέλας. Ἀθῆναι: 2009. Print.
  2. Παύλος Σαντορίνης, ο Ἕλληνας που ανακάλυψε το ραντάρ. Δίοδος, Η Πύλη της Γνώσης. Diodos.gr. May 15, 2019. Web.
  3. Σαντορίνης Παῦλος. Μεγάλη Στοὰ τῆς Ἑλλάδος. Grandlodge.gr. May 15, 2019. Web.
  4. Spanopoulos. B.A. “Pavlos Santorinis”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Passas, I. Athens: 1946. Print.
Pavlos Santorinis

Sophocles

sophocles

Tragic Poet (495 BC – 406 BC)

One of the greatest tragic poets to have ever lived, Sophocles, together with Aeschylus and Euripides form the holy triad of tragic poetry and theater arts. The writer of world-renowned plays such as Oedepus, Antigone and Philoctetes, Sophocles exerted enormous influence in the world of theater in the distant past when the aim of theater was not for entertainment as is today’s but for education and spiritual cleansing.

Sophocles was born in Athens to a wealthy, aristocratic family. He received an excellent education for his times, learning music from acclaimed teachers and tragic poetry from Aeschylus’ plays. As a playwright, Sophocles made his debut in front of the Greek audience in 468 BC at the age of 28 with his first play Triptolemos. His play won him his first prize, winning over Aeschylus, who had dominated the hearts of Athenian men as the greatest of all tragic poets. This signaled the rise of a new genius in tragic poetry and marked the start of Sophocles’ long and successful career.

Sophocles was an emblematic figure in the Athenian society and an exemplary citizen. In 443 – 442, following the massive acclaim of his play Antigone, Sophocles was made an honorary general and together with Pericles took part in the battle against the Samiotes. The same year he served as president of the Greek treasury. Widely popular throughout the whole Greece, he was a close friend of both of his rivals Aechylus, whom he considered his mentor and Euripides, whom he admired. Additionally, Sophocles was a good friend of Herodotus whom he also admired greatly, a feeling that was mutual between the two.

There is a general disagreement among historians concerning the total number of Sophocles’ works. It is generally accepted, however, the total number to be around 123. Sophocles won 1st place a total of 20 times and never ranked lower than second place in any competition that he participated in. His plays, which still luster with the same greatness as they did thousands of years ago, draw inspiration from the rich stories of the ancient Greek tradition, the world of the ancient Greek mythology, which relfects the states of man’s soul. It was this soul that Sophocles’ tragedies aimed to provoke and disturb and ultimately cleanse during the climax of the play, leading to its catharsis.

Not only is Sophocles a tragic poet. He is a philosopher, a hierophant, an initiate of the Mystery Schools, as was Aeschylus before him, a profound connoisseur of the Dionysean and Apollonian Mysteries, an anatomist of the human soul. The center of Sophocles’ plays is Man. In contrast, however to his predecessor, Sophocles’ characters act within the natural world and within the normal human boundaries. They are, nevertheless, braver than the average man, engulfed by the sense of justice and ethical duty, possessing ideals and principles for which they are willing at any given moment to sacrifice themselves to defend them, an iron will to overcome situations that exceed the human dimensions. In Sophocles’ plays, the characters’ actions are born from within themselves and are not a cause of an external or divine force. Hence, Sophocles’ tragedies are born from the struggle of man to overcome their nature and their fate. Through the drama, Sophocles’ ultimate goal is the apotheosis of man, which he considers the most amazing being of the universe (πολλὰ τὰ δεινά, κοὐδὲν ἀνθρώπου δεινότερον πέλει).

The innovations which Sophocles introduced in theater were numerous. He increased the total number of actors on the stage from 2 to 3, and the dancers of the chorus from 12 to 15. The chorus thus served as a protagonist and as a commentator. He furthermore introduced the Phyrgic melody in his plays. Even though an actor himself, Sophocles did not act in his own plays, as did his predecessors. He is the first to introduce the psychological aspect in the drama, with his characters seeking to shed light to their innermost, darkest places of their soul. The characters gain for the first time in theater a three-dimensional and psychological aspect and their actions imbue admiration to the spectator. It was Sophocles’ breakthrough to portray characters not as they normally are, but how they should be. That is, the idealization of the human soul.

In general, Sophocles’ works befall in the following categories: Theogony and the birth of the Gods, on the geneology of Deucalion, on the Argonauts’ expedition, on the geneology of Heracles, Inachus, Cadmus and Europe, on the geneology of the Pelasgians, Cecrops, the children of Tandalos and lastly on the Iliad and the Odyssey. Of the 123 plays, all but 7 survive only in fragments. These 7 plays are the following:

  • Antigone – About a young woman who disobeys the law to perform a righteous act.
  • Ajax – A play centered on the Trojan hero Ajax, with the themes revolving around polemic virtue and dignity.
  • Oedipus Tyrranus – A timeless classic on the tragic life of King Oedipus and his fate.
  • Trachiniae – About Deianira and the accidental murder of her husband Hercules.
  • Electra – A story of two siblings taking revenge on their father’s death.
  • Philoctetes – On the persuation of Trojan hero Philoctetes by Odysseus to join the Trojan War and fulfill the prophecy of the fall of Troy.
  • Oedipus at Colonus – The final part of the Oedipus trilogy masterpiece.

The main theme that is projected from Sophocles’ work is the highest ethical ideal of Hellenism: the harmony between the duty and freedom.

Sophocles is the primary representative of atticism, with his plays being the embodiment of everything the Athenian classicism of the 5th century BC epitomized, namely the philosophy, the religion, the ethics, the education, the Athenian land and nature and above all, all the high virtues of mankind, which Greece raised and placed in the center of man’s soul. Sophocles continued from where Aeschylus left the development of tragic poetry and brought it to the limits of perfection. He was called by many as the Homer of tragic poetry. With his works, tragic poetry and theatre arts as a whole reach their apogee. As Friedrich Nietzsche writes in his book The Birth of TragedyThe art of Aeschylus and Sophocles originate from the artistic ideal of the perfect harmony of the Dionysean and Apollonian spirits”.

With Sophocles, tragic poetry transcends the boundaries of art, becoming a means of spiritual exaltation and Greek Meditation. His immortal masterpieces are children of the Greek spirit, the Greek Miracle, which, as N.D. Korkofinis puts beautifully in the Encyclopaedia of the Sun “[The Greek art, the Greek philosophy, the immortal ancient Greek spirit] gift the entire human race its freedom from the horrors and agony of its earthly life. And this service is the highest service of the Greek world to all Humanity”.

Bibliography:

  1. “Sophocles”. Helios New Encyclopaedic Dictionary. N.D. Korkofinis, Passas, I. Athens: 1946. Print.
  2. Cartwright, Mark. Sophocles. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Sep 2013. Web. 09 May 2019.
  3. Δρακόπουλος, Ναστούλης, Ρώμας. Σοφοκλέους Τραγωδίαι – Ἀντιγόνη Φιλοκτήτης. Οργανισμός Εκδόσεως Διδακτικών Βιβλίων – Αθήνα. Υπουργείο Εθνικής Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων. Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο.
Sophocles